Terms of Reference for OPAG world map
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OPAG on Standardization and Intercomparisons
A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5
OPAG on Remote Sensing and New Technologies
B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4

OPAG on Capacity Building

C.1 C.2 C.3 C.4 C.5



A1. Expert Team on Standardization

1.    Provide specifications for instruments and observing systems in order to meet requirements from Members for the measurement of meteorological, climatological, marine, related geophysical and environmental variables.

2.     Review, develop and update guidance material and standards related to instruments and methods of observation, including identification of standards for inclusion in the CIMO Guide. The development and identification of standards will be done in co-operation with other international standardization organizations, like ISO and BIPM.

3.    Review outcomes of Lead Centres and coordinate inclusion of guidance material in IOM reports and the CIMO Guide on: standard procedures for all aspects of instrument use and operation; advice related to instrument use, operation, testing, verification and calibration; and the calculation of uncertainty for operational measurements.

4.    Formulate proposals for improving the interoperability of instruments in support of cost-effective operations in WIGOS.

5.    Develop proposals for metadata standards to be disseminated through WIS as required by WIGOS.

6.    Develop further basic procedures for quality assurance and management of observations, instrument maintenance, calibration and operation within WIGOS.

7.    Coordinate with other technical commissions and WMO Programmes such as GFCS and DRR in reviewing siting, performance, classifications and metadata standards for systems and individual sensors.

8.    Develop guidance material relevant to the ET ToRs, including proposals for updates of/new chapters for the CIMO Guide.

9.    Establish Task Teams to address specific tasks, as appropriate, monitor Task Team work progress and report to CIMO-MG.

A2. Expert Team on New In-situ Technologies

1.     Review and publish performance results and recommendations relating to the state-of-the-art of operational instruments, their calibration and methods of observation and their observing system supporting infrastructure.

2.     Monitor and report on progress in development and performance of new surface and upper-air observation technologies and measurement techniques.

3.     In view of the increased impact of extreme weather events, review and make proposals on:

    • Need for development of more robust instruments with greater resilience to extreme weather conditions and combinations of weather conditions;
    • Need for development of instruments with increased measuring range;
    • Investigation of performance of instruments in extreme climate.

4.     Monitor progress and give guidance on observing technology associated with sustaining AWS network operations, including in extreme climate conditions.

5.     Review development of new radiation reference instruments and update relevant guidance material.

6.     Develop guidance material relevant to the ET ToRs, including proposals for updates of/new chapters for the CIMO Guide.

7.     Establish Task Teams to address specific tasks, as appropriate, monitor Task Team work progress and report to CIMO-MG.

A3. Expert Team on Instrument Intercomparisons

1.     Prepare and prioritize proposals for instrument intercomparisons (in-situ surface, upper-air and marine) according to the CIMO Provisional Programme (2010-2014) and available funds, in particular taking into account the requirements of WIGOS.

2.     Propose the membership of International Organizing Committees. These will appoint a Project Leader responsible for conducting a specific instrument intercomparisons.

3.     Plan, coordinate implementation, review and evaluate global and regional intercomparisons of instruments and methods of observation in collaboration with relevant manufacturers and the Hydro-Meteorological Equipment Industry Association (HMEI).

4.     Develop guidance material relevant to the ET ToRs, including proposals for updates of/new chapters for the CIMO Guide.

5.     Monitor progress of TT and report to CIMO-MG.

A4. Theme Leader on Aircraft Measurements

1.     Provide technical review of approved aircraft based humidity capabilities.

2.     Liaise closely with ET-A3 for testing and validation of the AMDAR system and aircraft based humidity sensor.

3.     Provide input to future updates to the CIMO Guide relevant to aircraft based observations, including identification of standards for inclusion in the CIMO Guide.

4.     Work closely with ET-A1 for the development and provision of specifications and standards for aircraft based observation systems in order to meet user requirements.

5.     Communicate to the Commission the latest development in AMDAR and other aircraft based observational platforms.

A5. Task Team on Aircraft-based Observations

1.     Develop and manage the workplan and associated activities of the TT-AO, as well as the budget for the corresponding expenditure of the AMDAR Trust Fund in line with the Trust Fund’s Terms of Reference, in collaboration with CBS ET-Aircraft-Based Observations.

2.     Oversee the scientific and technical development and maintenance aircraft-based observing systems, from a point of view of instruments and methods of observation, and inform the Commission of latest developments.

3.     Work closely with ET-A1 in conducting the development and maintenance of technical standards associated with aircraft-based observations, and provision of related specifications to meet user requirements.

4.     Provide the technical review of approved aircraft-based humidity capabilities.

5.     Liaise closely with ET-A3 for testing and validation of the AMDAR system and aircraft based humidity sensors.

6.     Provide input for updates of the CIMO Guide relevant to aircraft-based observations, including identification of standards for inclusion in the CIMO Guide and other WMO regulatory documents.

7.     Assist and provide support for training and outreach activities to support the use of aircraft-based observations



B1. Expert Team on Operational Remote-Sensing

ET will work on operational weather radars, wind profilers and lightning detection systems:

1.     Review operation of current instrumentation identifying best practices, including instrument specifications, and siting (including network support infrastructure and preventive maintenance).

2.     Review quality control procedures including standardization, calibration, signal processing, algorithms and products generation with close collaboration with users.

3.     Review the development of new technologies.

4.     Facilitate activities associated with improving the operations by initiating workshops on performance evaluation and product interpretation.

5.     Review data exchange technologies and recommend mechanisms noting advantages and disadvantages of WIS.

6.     Develop guidance material relevant to the ET ToRs, including proposals for updates of/new chapters for the CIMO Guide.

7.     Review and update training material and support OPAG capacity building.

8.     Establish Task Teams to address specific tasks, as appropriate, monitor Task Team work progress and report to CIMO-MG.

B2. Expert Team on New Technologies and Testbeds

1.     Monitor, evaluate and report on development and implementation of:

    • Microwave Radiometers, especially the quality of temperature measurements in the planetary boundary layer;
    • GPS Water Vapour Networks and quality of data in suitable intercomparison with other systems including radiosonde and microwave radiometer;
    • Raman water vapour lidar and specifically quality of absolute humidity measurements in the troposphere;
    • Wind-finding systems;
    • Meteorological lidar systems;
    • Cloud radars;
    • Instruments for the operational aerosol and volcanic ash measurements;
    • Other new technologies, such as eddy-covariance measurements for energy flux measurements and meteor scattering radars.

2.     Review outcomes of testbeds and coordinate inclusion of guidance material in IOM reports and the CIMO Guide on:

    • The performance of new surface based remote sensing technology, including strengths and weaknesses, accuracy, reliability and cost effectiveness;
    • The principles for the optimal mix of surface based in situ and remote sensing systems (interoperability) to improve both temporal and spatial capabilities for future operational upper air networks.

3.     Review and update existing training material and support OPAG-capacity-building in the production of suitable training workshops, reference material and guidelines for all operational aspects of remote sensing systems.

4.     Establish Task Teams to address specific tasks, as appropriate, monitor Task Team work progress and report to CIMO-MG, if appropriate.

B3. Theme Leader on Radio-frequency Protection

1.     Consider within CIMO issues related to radio-frequency protection activities for all operational upper-air and remote-sensing observing systems (radisondes, weather radars, wind profilers, microwave radiometers, etc.).

2.     Liaise with all CIMO Expert Teams in a view to collect and coordinate their requirements and consider WMO postitions developed by CBS Steering Group on Radio-frequency Coordination (SG-RFC).

3.     Liaise with CBS SG-RFC  providing CIMO input on its requirements and expertise and supporting SG-RFC to maintain a WMO strategy for ensuring availability of radio-frequencies for meteorological applications.

B4. Theme Leaders on Satellite Observations

1.    Liaise with CBS ET-SAT and ET-SUP to review and report on requirements for calibration of satellite instruments and requirements for ground truth observations. Propose priorities for the meteorological variables needed by WIGOS.

2.      Contribute to the review of the GSICS WIGOS Pilot Project on existing satellite calibration and validation programme.

3.    Work with CBS ET-SAT and ET-SUP in updating the CIMO Guide chapter on Satellite Observations, especially with respect to the requirements for calibration and ground truth observations, as required to improve standardization of satellite observations for WIGOS.

4.    Collaborate with relevant CIMO Expert Teams in preparing recommendations for providing measurements of the quality required for ground truth.



Expert Team on Regional Instrument Centres, Calibration and Traceability

1.    Develop a strategy and provide guidance towards ensuring worldwide traceability of measurements to the International System of Units (SI), including outreach material to sensitive on the need for and importance of instrument calibration and measurements traceability.

2.    Promote further the partnership between RICs of developing and developed countries and encourage Members to use the system of internship in RICs in the various WMO Regions.

3.    Strengthen the Quality Assurance of the RICs/RRCs as a crosscutting issue involving the regional and technical cooperation activities by:

    • Collaborating with RICs to define RIC functional capabilities;
    • Encouraging RICs to organize and/or participate in inter-laboratory comparisons;
    • Providing support in RIC evaluations;
    • Monitoring the RIC capabilities based on their yearly reports and 5-year evaluation and inform presidents of RAs;
    • Provide advice for certification and accreditation of RIC
    • Monitoring RRC capabilities, provide support to RRC evaluations;
    • Developing guidance to improve RRC capabilities and the quality of radiation measurements in national radiation networks;
    • Collaborating with Regional Marine Instrumentation Centers (RMICs) and developing guidance material relevant to the ET ToR, including updating the CIMO Guide to recognize the capabilities of the RMICs.

4.    With respect to capacity building:

    • Review and provide guidance to develop the IMOP capacities of developing countries, in particular the development and fabrication of instruments;
    • Collaborate with testbed centres and lead centres and ensure that standards and specifications for new instruments and technologies are provided to RICs in order to promote effective access to such guidance materials and adaptation of the new technologies.

5.    Develop guidance material relevant to the ET ToRs, including proposals for updates of /new chapters for the CIMO Guide.

C2. CIMO Guide Editorial Board

1.    Coordinate activities for the periodic updating of the CIMO Guide, in collaboration with CIMO OPAGs, ETs, HMEI and the Secretariat, namely:
Develop guidelines for the updating of the CIMO Guide to ensure the uniformity of its presentation;

    • Collect proposals from user community for updates and revisions;
    • Identify areas to be updated, revised or completely rewritten and advise the CIMO-MG;
    • Identify experts for updating/revision of the relevant parts of the Guide and advise the CIMO-MG;
    • Coordinate the work of experts on revisions to the Guide;
    • Arrange for approval of the updated/revised parts of the Guide according to a procedure approved by the CIMO-MG;
    • Provide updates/revisions in a form of track changes for consideration by the CIMO‑MG and approval by the president of CIMO or a CIMO session;
    • Provide regular reports to the CIMO-MG and Secretariat;

2.    Develop a strategy for the development of the CIMO manual.

3.    Review proposals for and advise ETs on the development of common ISO/WMO standards.

4.    Contribute to the development of the WIGOS Guide and Manual, as appropriate.

C3. Theme Leaders on Training Material & Training Activities

1.    Collaborate with RAs, Regional Training Centers and the WMO Education and Training Office (ETR), in identifying the needs for training and arranging training workshop courses on the use and the maintenance of instruments and new technologies based on the need of the Members.

2.    Report on planned training events.

3.    Provide effective access to training materials for calibration of meteorological and related environmental instruments.

4.    Provide effective access to procedures for quality management of observations, instrument maintenance, calibration and operational practices.

5.    In collaboration with other ETs, develop computer-aided learning strategy and explore a possibility to establish Virtual Training and Education Laboratories in collaboration with RICs and RRCs and recording of training events.

C4. Theme Leader on Radiosonde Performance Monitoring

1.    Arrange for the productions of monitoring reports on the systematic performances of radiosonde networks in GOS (Radiosonde catalogue and statistics).

2.    Liaise with Members and HMEI on performance issues identified above.

C5. Theme Leader on Surface-based Instrument Performance Monitoring

1.    Develop automated methods, standards and essential criteria for real-time integrated monitoring of surface-based operational instruments performances;

2.    Establish links with other WMO programmes, including WIGOS and WIS, and provide them with systematic performance results by series of reports.



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